|Degree Code:||C50||Degree Name:||M.A. (Transport Geography)|
|Degree Description:||Click to View|
M.A. (Transport Geography)
|Examination Regulations||View Details|
GUIDELINES FOR PROJECT PAPER AND THESIS PROPOSAL WRITING
This outline is intended to serve as a guide to the postgraduate students, supervisors, Departmental Heads, Departmental Postgraduate Studies Committees and the Faculty Postgraduate Studies Committee in the preparation and assessment of research proposals, research project papers and theses.
Research is a systematic process for generating new knowledge or for confirming existing knowledge. A farmer planting two kinds of sorghum side by side to compare yields, a biochemist sequencing the proteins of a new virus, a statistician analyzing the health impact of an intervention over space and time, a sociologist questioning villagers about their feelings towards family planning – all are doing research (a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic or problem area).
Each form of research offers its own perspective and follows its own set of procedures. This therefore means that besides the general guidelines on the procedure of doing research, there are variations across disciplines, meant to address specific disciplinary requirements. Even in a given discipline, research protocols may differ considerably. The format suggested below is only a guide as to what is important in compiling a research proposal and subsequently a research paper or a thesis. It is to be used flexibly both by graduate students and by the Postgraduate Studies Committee.
It is to be used flexibly both by graduate students and by the Postgraduate Studies Committee.
2. RESEARCH PROPOSAL
A research proposal is a key step in the process of obtaining knowledge. Once the knowledge is obtained, it is processed and compiled into a research paper or thesis.
A research proposal states the nature of knowledge to be sought and specific objectives to be achieved. It should justify the need for pursuing the gap in knowledge and should specify the methods to be used in that effort, among others.
Preceding the actual body of the proposal is the front cover page information which includes the title page, date of the proposal, and name and institution of the author, table of contents matching text pages.
The title of the proposal should be as short as possible and should reflect the main thrust of the intended investigation. The substantive sections of a proposal are as below.
2.1 Background to the Study
A background to the study provides an introduction to the proposed research. It prepares the reader for the statement of the problem by contextualizing the topic. It discusses the existing body of knowledge on the topic of the study.
2.2 Statement of the Research Problem
The statement of the research problem is a concise discussion of the nature of knowledge to be sought or of gaps in existing knowledge that need to be filled. A statement of the problem is meant to demonstrate that the researcher has a good grasp of what he/she wants to research on.
For instances, there could be a discrepancy between theoretical assumptions and actual behavior in society, the research would be to seek an explanation for that gap.
2.3 Research questions
For qualitative research there should be research questions which aim at providing adequate answers based on the data collected. These questions should derive from the problem and focus on the data to be collected and interrogate the various aspects of the gap to provide a possible explanation.
2.4. Objectives of the Study
This section requires the statement of a general/ overall objective of the study followed by a number of specific objectives.
2.5. Justification of the study
This comprises a clear statement of the value of the proposed research; it might specify the significance for solving an existing problem in society such as behavioral change or policy modification. The value could also be of epistemological nature, solving an academic/theoretical problem.
2.6. Scope and Limitations of the study
The section states what areas are included and excluded from the study. In the first place the scope determines the conceptual area in which the research is carried out and points out those conceptual areas that are no included and the reasons for that. The limitations are related to constraints related to scope, such as finances, time, geographical areas, school(s) of thought, etc.
2.7. Definition of concepts
This section deals with definition of key concepts and terms to be used in the study. It requires a list of lexical/dictionary definitions as well as operational definitions. This section can be placed at the beginning of the proposal or elsewhere depending on disciplinary orientation.
2.8 Literature Review
This section describes how the stated or a similar research problem has been approached in the past. It may also make reference to current research on the matter when there is concurrence or divergence of opinion or if it is relevant for stressing a point tackled by the research. The review should be focused (related to the topic under study) and be critical stating weaknesses and strengths of previous works. The contribution of new work should be stated.
2.9. Theoretical Framework/Conceptual framework
In this section, a theory or theories relevant to the research problem is/are critically reviewed on how the theory/theories is/are contributing to solve the research problem. It should state the specific theoretical assumptions that help to solve the problem. In case more than one theory is used the student must point out how the theories relate to each other and the value they add to the study.
The conceptual framework guides data collection and facilitates interpretation of research findings. Either a theory or a conceptual framework is used for the research.
2.10 Research Hypotheses
The hypotheses preferably used in quantitative research are derived from the theoretical framework and/or from data. A hypothesis is a statement that expresses the probable relationship between variables. Hypotheses state what is expected to be found rather than what has already been determined to exist depending on the disciplinary orientation. Hypotheses could be used with research questions. This refers to a possible proof to be arrived at and which will stand or not after the process of reasoning and proof has been carried out. It may be proved to be true, partly true, false or partially false. In this truth lies in the added information that the research set out to seek and the gap it sought to fulfill. Thus the conclusion will necessarily make reference to the hypotheses.
This section deals with a detailed explanation of how the research project will be carried out to answer the specific questions. According to disciplines it can include proposed study sites, sources of data and reasons for their selection; types of data to be collected; sampling methods to be used; techniques of data collection and analysis. The success of the research will to a great extent depend on the awareness of the method and its meticulous following. Library research is not methodology.
2.12 Proposed chapter outline
This section provides a tentative outline of chapters and its salient points of the thesis or project paper.
The reference list follows the chapter outline, and precedes the annexes, and should be consistently done according to a preferred style. Footnotes and/or in-text citations, or endnotes, should be done depending on disciplinary/departmental orientation.
2.14 Appendices and Annexes
Any appendices should be listed here and they should be referenced in the text. The annexes could include time frame of the project, photographs, maps, anticipated budget, questionnaires, if applicable and research permits, if necessary.
2.15 Proposal Size
The proposal shall be formatted as follows: 1.5 line spacing, font 12, and 1" (one inch) margins. It should be twenty-five (25) pages maximum, including bibliography/references. The student should submit a hard and a pdf formatted copy to the faculty or department, as the case may be.
|Level : 1|
|Course Code||Course Name||Course Hours|
|CGP 501||Statistical Techniques And Analysis||45||View Description|
Statistical Techniques And Analysis Description
An overview to statistical techniques and analysis. Probability theory: normal, binomial and Poisson probability distributions. Hypothesis testing: null and alternative hypothesis, qualities of a good hypothesis, Type I and II error in hypothesis testing and steps in hypothesis testing. Use and application of parametric tests: the student t-test, F-test, z-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Use and application of non-parametric tests: the Chi-square test, Wilcoxon test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and runs test. Simple correlation and regression analysis. Multivariate analysis: Multiple correlation and regression analysis, Factor Analysis (FA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA). Time Series Analysis. Computer applications in statistical data analysis.
|CGP 528||Quantitative Methods In Transport Geography||45||View Description|
Quantitative Methods In Transport Geography Description
Transport Systems Analysis (TSA) using graph theory: topological analysis of networks, graph theoretic indices, matrix powering techniques, nodal analysis, simple and multiple linkage analysis, application of graph theory in transport geography. Spatial interaction analysis: distance decay functions, gravity model formulation and applications, potential model and applications. Application of linear programming to transport problems: basic linear programming formulations, graphic solution to linear programs, simplex methods, transportation model, the dual solution. Introduction to Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and computer programming and applications softwares in transport geography.
|CGP 530||Rural Transport||45||View Description|
Rural Transport Description
Development of rural transport infrastructure: means of transport, transport infrastructure, characteristics of rural transport. Relationship between rural transport network and regional development. The traditional, intermediate and modern sub-sectors in rural transport. Needs assessment of rural transport. Transport and crop production. Delivery of services and information flow. Land use/transportation interaction and personal mobility. Travel demand and transportation system capacity. Rural transport trends and problems: population change and transport. Accessibility and rural development in developing countries. Travel modelling to rural transport planning. Rural road network planning. Role of project appraisal in rural road transport planning.
|CGP 532||Marine Transport||45||View Description|
Marine Transport Description
Discussion of forms of marine transport: liner shipping, cruise shipping, ferry crossings. Examination of development of marine transport. Spatial dynamics of world shipping industry: oceanic shipping’s importance to world trade, bulk trade patterns, general cargo trade patterns, changing time – space relationships associated with increasing ship’s size. New types of ship and development of world’s market fleet. Port morphologies and functions. Any port and free port concepts. Ocean channels for navigation and inland canals. Changing technologies of handling cargoes with special reference to containerisation. Role of advance cargo information systems (ACIS) in marine transport. Economic policies and sea ports: public sector port authorities, intermodalism, logistics and transport, risk management issues, flag discrimination and direct state intervention in the development of national and/or regional shipping lines. Environmental impacts of marine transport.
|CGP 534||Transport Planning||45||View Description|
Transport Planning Description
Overview of the transport systems in developing countries. Scale and scope of transport sector in Kenya. Fiscal, administrative and safety issues in public transport. Household adaptation to changing travel characteristics. Effects of commuting on health and community welfare. Principles of transport planning. Transportation planning methods. Case studies of major transport projects in Kenya. Land use and transport interaction. Social and environmental considerations in highway location. Land use and transport planning process. The role of government in transport planning. Urban and regional transport planning. Transport policy and urban freight movement. Urban transport alternatives. Urban transport management. Intermodal transfer and location.
|CGP 565||Principles Of Transport Geography||45||View Description|
Principles Of Transport Geography Description
The basis for transport interaction. Movements of people, goods and information and their underlying factors. Transport network evolution and structure. Transport network flows and their analysis. Transport demand. Transport costs. Terminal and other transport rates, pricing, and policies. Transport routes, improved transport facilities, cost-space and time-space convergence and divergence. Idealised model of transport network change. Technical and economic properties of network. Vehicle supply. Decision-making and government policy in transport issues: regulation, financing, policy, planning and management. Private sector participation in the transport industry. Patterns of public transport service provision. Modal systems: the rail transport system, the road transport system. pipeline transport, air transport development and traffic trends, coastal and ocean shipping, inland water transport. Traditional and non-motorised transport systems. Intermodal allocation of flows, locational analysis of communication media. Trends in transportation: motorisation, urban congestion, environmental pollution, railway and other forms of reform.
|CGP 567||Urban Public Transport||45||View Description|
Urban Public Transport Description
Planning, design and operation of bus, rail and other public modes of transport. Improved transport customer service. Relationship between particular modes and characteristics of urban areas. Funding, deregulation, security and other administrative issues. Problems associated with movement of goods, people and information in urban areas. Common urban transport problems. Case studies of urban transport problems with emphasis on developing countries. Urban freight issues. Conflict in urban transport. Public versus private transport. Mass transit. Public transport policies. Costs of alternative transport systems. Urban transport and energy consumption. Urban transport and environmental problems. Urban transport planning and management. Sustainable urban transport.
|CGP 569||Economics Of Transportation||45||View Description|
Economics Of Transportation Description
Analysis of transportation systems. Development of various modes: air, rail, road, pipelines and water. Road user costs. Discounting for benefits and cost analysis. Budgets and priorities in transportation. Regulation and national transport policy. Economic performance in regulated and unregulated environments. Incremental analysis. Fares and market behaviour: case studies. Competition in the transport market: private ownership and operation, making public sector management more market sensitive. Role of transport in trade. Transport innovation and trade development. International trade and mode of transport in Western Europe: contrasts between countries and contrasts between products. Case studies of trade and transport modes. Transport and economic integration.
|CGP 571||Travel Demand Modelling||45||View Description|
Travel Demand Modelling Description
Travel demand forecasting. Origin-destination analysis. Trip distribution models. Economic principles in transport. Application of facility location and network theories in planning. Analysis of different transport systems. Delay analysis using the queuing theory. Demand estimation methods. Operational consideration related to various transport systems, including paratransit systems. Highway capacity analysis. Conceptual basis for predicting effects of transportation. Policy measures on traffic flows and systems performance. Travel demand modelling. Application of random utility models to travel demand forecasting. Choice theories and random utility models. Theoretical aspects of travel demand. Application of aggregate and disaggregate models for land use development. Trip generation and distribution. Mode and route choice.
|CGP 573||Transport Policy Formulation||45||View Description|
Transport Policy Formulation Description
A review of the procedures, issues and impacts involving formulation of transport policy. Urban land use and development trends. Investment issues: investment decision-making processes relating to different transport modes, allocation of fixed cost to uses of railways and unequal treatment of road and rail investments, supra national markets and their associated transport demands and trade flows. The impact of political changes on transport systems. Transport operating subsidies. Deregulation and privatisation of transport operations and infrastructure. Accidents and safety considerations. Mobility gap and differential accessibility. Pollution and specialised transport services for elderly, children and physically disabled. Rural transport policies.
|CGP 575||Transport And Development||45||View Description|
Transport And Development Description
Transport and location of economic activity: transport rates and economic location, the function of transport in manufacturing, transport and agricultural development; transport, food security and aid, air travel, recreation and tourism development; world transport patterns. Route densities and traffic densities. Importance of international transport in export and import trade. Transport innovation and trade development. contemporary relationships between transport models and trade. Large scale transport infrastructure projects and uneven regional development. Transport terminals and their importance in urban and regional development planning. Improved accessibility and development in developing countries. Maritime infrastructure and economic development: port development, port layout and infrastructural facilities. Port services and regional development. Transport, environment and energy: the impact of transport on local and global environment, the use of scarce and expensive non-renewable energy resources. Sustainable transport development. Transport, land value structure and urban development.
|CGP 577||Evaluation Of Transport Impacts||45||View Description|
Evaluation Of Transport Impacts Description
Disamenities of transport and their effects on public health; an evaluation of existing traffic rules and regulations. Concepts of environmental indicators and measurement of traffic impact; tolerable limit. Elements of traffic accidents and collection of accident data; noise pollution, air quality, and traffic intrusion. Discussion of environmental impact analysis and assessment of policies, measures and procedures for transport components. Route location decisions. Socio-cultural economic and other impacts.
|CGP 579||Transport And Land Use||45||View Description|
Transport And Land Use Description
Land use and transport interaction. Traffic distribution. Transport modes and route assignments; Flow dependent travel times and accessibility to land uses; Land use and transport planning process; Structure and calibration of transport supply and travel demand models. Comparative analysis of application of Computer Assisted Land Use and Transport Analysis System (CALUTAS) and the Leeds Integrated Land Use Transport Model (LILT) to selected cities in both developed and developing countries. Land use alternatives for congestion relief in urban areas: densification, mixed-use development, jobs-housing balance and pedestrian-friendly site designs. Road developments and their impact on land use patterns.
|CGP 581||Special Topics In Transport Geography||45||View Description|
Special Topics In Transport Geography Description
The role of transport in development. Regional specialisation and transport development. Technology and transport development. Transport problems in developing countries. Land use and transport interaction. Transport recreation. Freight transport in developing countries. Public transport in the cities of developing world. Motorised and non-motorised transport systems. Deregulation and privatisation of surface and air transport. Transport and trade. Residential and intra-urban mobility. Telecommunications and economic development. Transport safety. Transport planning; traffic management for urban areas in more developed countries and low developed countries. Inter-city (urban) transport. Transport and the disadvantage groups. Rural transport needs in developing economies. Sustainable transport. Research trends in transport geography.
|CGP 583||Analysis Of Transportation Supply||45||View Description|
Analysis Of Transportation Supply Description
Analysis of basic performance characteristics of different modes of transportation such as cost, capacity, speed, volume, safety and control. Analysis and modelling of transportation performance, and cost of passengers and freight modes as a function of planning options.
|CGP 585||Transport Forecasting||45||View Description|
Transport Forecasting Description
Theoretical foundations of models used in transport planning and analysis process, applications of such models to empirical data, focus on aggregate and disaggregate techniques of land use forecasting, trip generation and trip distribution, application of models of modal split, transport supply and networks, techniques for project evaluation, analysis of transport system alternatives for urban and rural areas in developing countries.
|CGP 587||Research Methods In Transport Geography||45||View Description|
Research Methods In Transport Geography Description
Approaches to research in transport geography. Literature search. Considerations of transport characteristics and problems. Models of transport network development. Planning and evaluation of transport systems. Cost-benefit analysis of major road networks and other transport systems. Rural road transport infrastructure evaluation. Introduction to survey instrument designing. Economic and environmental evaluation of transport investments. Road user costs. Decision-making in transport management. Sources of transport data. Collection of transport data. Urban transit surveys.
|CGP 589||Logistics And Transport||45||View Description|
Logistics And Transport Description
An examination of logistics theory. Concepts and practice as applied to business organisations. Inventory, warehousing, materials handling, packaging and transportation. In-depth study of transportation function. Relationships and interfaces to be considered in design and management of logistics systems: technological innovations. Reduced and abolished tarrif, exchange control and political constraints on trade. Logistics of physical distribution: assembly processes such as just in time and reliability and flexibility of transport systems.
|CGP 598||Project Paper||45||View Description|
Project Paper Description
A candidate shall choose a topic from any of the taught courses and carry out a research on it per the departmental and Faculty of Arts Regulations.
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